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Punctuation

Punctuation

Punctuation is a set of symbols that we usually use to separate sentences or parts of sentences generally to make their meaning clear to the reader.

Using commas in direct sentences, introductory words and interrupters.


Direct speech involves quoting the actual words of the narrator or speaker. When quoting someone, the quoted words are usually placed within quotation marks preceded by a comma.

Read the following sentences:
1. I said, “It’s been raining heavily since morning.”
2. She asked me, “Are you coming?”

Introductory words: These are usually used to introduce something and usually answer questions like who, what, where, when, why, and how. A comma to separate the introductory word from the independent clause. Study the following sentences:
1. On the other hand, she was very happy.
2. Ultimately, he’ll have to decide.

Interrupters are words that we use for emphasis or to stress certain sentiments. Generally, commas are used to set interrupters apart from rest of the sentence.

For example:
• I will, to be perfectly honest, try my best to reach on time.

Using semicolons, colons and commas in lists.
• Generally, commas are used to separate various items in a list. E.g. eggs, bread, fruits, and milk.

• It is used to connect independent clauses. For example:
• Since I was ill, I could not come.

• To set statements apart from question tags. For example:
• You can do it, can’t you?

A semicolon is generally used to separate two independent clauses, but it also indicates that a close relationship exists between the two clauses. For example:
• The cow is brown; it is also old.

Colons are used to introduce an independent clause. For example:
• You have got two choices: run away or fight.

Full stop is generally used to indicate the end of a declarative sentence or an imperative statement. For example:
• She wanted to turn him into an honest person.

Capitalization:
• Capital letters are used to commence a new sentence, a reported speech in inverted commas, all the proper nouns as well as adjectives.
• They are also used in all nouns and pronouns used for God. E.g. Lord, Almighty, etc.
• Names of the days of week and months.
• Religions and various sects.

Exercise

Punctuate the given sentences.

1. Bravo______ You have done well.
a. !
b. :
c. ;
d. ,

2. Father had to go into hospital_______ he had skin problem.
a. ;
b. :
c. ,
d. !

3. We had a great time in Mumbai ________ the boys really enjoyed it.
a. ‘
b. ;
c. –
d. ,

4. Do you know why I was upset______
a. !
b. .
c. ,
d. ?

5. The teacher asked him why he was late_______
a. ?
b. .
c. !
d. None of the above

6. He is a strong______ healthy man.
a. ,
b. ;
c. :
d. !

7. Although establishing new schools is prohibited______ there is always a loophole that can be exploited.
a. ;
b. :
c. ,
d. No punctuation mark is needed

8. Some people work best in the mornings______ others do better in the evenings.
a. :
b. .
c. ,
d. ;

9. The __________ of baptism is a symbolic act.
a. Christians ceremony
b. Christian ceremony
c. Christian’s ceremony
d. christian ceremony

10. You have got two options_______ do or die.
a. :
b. ;
c. ,
d. .


Answers

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. A

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